An illustrated dictionary of the gods and symbols of Ancient by Mary Ellen Miller

By Mary Ellen Miller

Мифы, верования и культура древней Мезоамерики (майя, ацтеки, тольтеки)

»The Gods and emblems of old Mexico and the Maya» is the first-ever English-language dictionary
of Mesoamerican mythology and faith. approximately three hundred entries, from accession to yoke, describe the most gods
and symbols of the Olmecs, Zapotecs, Maya, Teotihuacanos, Mixtecs, Toltecs, and Aztecs.
Topics variety from jaguar and jester gods to reptile eye and rubber, from production money owed and sacred locations
to ritual practices corresponding to bloodletting, confession, dance, and pilgrimage.

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Both this mythical event and the creation of the Bfth sun at Teotihuacan stress the importance of human sacriBce for world balance and survival. Following the fall of Tenochtitlan to the Spanish in 1521, Mesoamerican religion was rapidly transformed. Many of the more elaborate manifestations associated with the elite, such as hieroglyphic writing and iconography, virtually ceased to exist by the end of the 16th c. Native temples, sculptures, and books were systematically destroyed. The Spanish conquerors vigorously suppressed native religious ceremon­ ies, particularly those involving human sacriBce.

R ecent epigraphic research has estab­ lished th a t the w ord cacao was fu lly present among the Classic M a y a - in fact, m any o f the fine Classic M a y a polychrom e vases are g lyphically lab eled as cacao d rin kin g vessels. caim an O ne o f the m ost ven erated carnivores o f M esoam erica was the caim an (C arm an crocodi/us). Because o f its aquatic h a b ita t, g reat size, and spiny back, the caim an was a com m on m etaphor fo r the m ountainous EARTH Boating upon the SEA. E x p lic it portrayals o f the caim an appear as e a rly as the F o rm ative O lm ec, w h ere it is ren dered both in p o rtab le a rt and m onum ental sculpture.

T h e M a y a and A ztec associations are as follow s: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Maya glyph to be read cacao, from cacao vessel excavated at Río Azul, Guatemala, Early Classic period. Caiman tree, detail of Izapa Stela 25, Protoclassic Maya. ) B en (green m aize) lx (jag u ar) C ip a c tli (caim an) E hecatl (w in d ) C a lli (house) C u etzp allin (liza rd ) C o atí (snake) M iq u iz tli (death ) M a za tl (d eer) T o ch tli (ra b b it) A tl (w a te r) Itz c u in tli (dog) O zo m atli (m onkey) M a lin a lli (grass) surface o f the earth w ind night, darkness, ja g u ar m aize, abundance snake death deer Venus, ra b b it w a te r dog m onkey A catl (reed ) O celotl (jag u ar) ja g u ar eagle 15 16 M e n (eag le) C u a u h tli (eagle) C ib (w ax) C ozcacuauhtli (king v u ltu re ) 17 C aban (e a rth ) 18 19 20 Edznab (d in t) C auac (storm ) O llin (m ovem ent) T e c p a tl (d in t) e a rth , earth q uake d in t Q u ia h u itl (ra in ) X ó ch itl (d o w er) ra in , storm sun A hau (lo rd ) 50 CALENDAR Tibe trecena In the ton a/am at/, the p erio d o f 260 days was n ew 3 65-d ay y ea r.

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