Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol.70 Part 1, Evolution of by Ilya Prigogine

By Ilya Prigogine

A part of a sequence dedicated to supporting the reader receive common information regarding a wide selection of themes in chemical physics. Its objective is to provide entire analyses of topics of curiosity and to inspire the expression of person issues of view.

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Extra resources for Advances in Chemical Physics, Vol.70 Part 1, Evolution of Size Effects in Chemical Dynamics (Wiley 1988)

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Studies of the phospholipid composition of chloroplasts and mitochondria from avocado and cauliflower showed differences in the precise composition between the species and major differences between the chloroplast and mitochondrion in both cases [76]. Diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin) is highly enriched in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is not generally present in other cellular membranes; phosphatidylethanolamine is relatively more abundant and phosphatidylserine relatively less abundant in mitochondrial inner membranes [77].

128] using F1–ATPase units immobilised on a surface through histidine tagging of the a and b sub-units and with the g sub-unit modified with actin fibres terminated with a magnetic bead. By using an external magnetic field they were able to drive the rotation of the g sub-unit and thus drive ATP synthesis. Despite the significant progress made in understanding the mechanism of ATP synthase a number of questions remain. For example, it is unclear how the transport of the three or four protons through the c sub-units of F0, and the corresponding small rotations of the c sub-unit ring, couple to the 120 rotations of the g sub-unit [5].

Rotation of the central g sub-unit drives the catalytic sites sequentially through the sequence leading to the endergonic conversion of ADP and inorganic phosphate to ATP. 33 hydrolysis, of one molecule of ATP. Thus in ATP synthase, mechanical rotation is the mechanism by which the free energy of the proton motive fore is converted into the chemical potential of ATP. Evidence for this mechanism comes from a variety of sources, including radio labelling and specific cross-linking studies [119,120], fluorescent labelling studies [121], by nmr [122], by cross-linking [123] and through direct observation of single molecules using epi-fluorescent microscopy [124–126].

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