Advances in Chemical Physics: Aspects of the Study of by PRIGOGINE, RICE


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We recall from (1) in Part I that the intensity pattern determines only the translational symmetry parallel to the surface. Analysis of the magnitudes of the scattered intensities themselves is required to determine the geometry of surface atoms. We return to a more extensive discussion of the interpretation of intensity patterns in Part VII. , “specular,” k;, = kll) beam. The parameters describing the incident (unprimed variables) and exit (primed variables) beams are indicated in Fig. 8. The energy, polar angle, EXPE RI ME N TAL LY M E A S URE D QUANTlT IE S IN ELASTIC LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION (ELEED) - 1.

Nondestructiveness. Our survey has been concerned, thus far, primarily with the first two. We examined the surface sensitivity of each technique, in turn, and organized the survey to display the nature of the surface characterization information generated by the various types of measurement. Evidently, completeness requires that we include in our hypothetical instrument at least one experiment to determine the chemical, geometrical, vibrational, and electronic structure, respectively, of a sample.

Finally, we recall that whereas core-level spectroscopies can determine the charge of surface species, in the case of planar targets ion scattering experiments are used to measure their mass. In ion scattering s p e c t r ~ m e t r y , ~ ~ * ~the ~ *elastic * ’ ~ ~ scattering from surface species of ions in the energy range 103 eV sE51O6 eV is measured. The recoil energy given the incident ion is a direct measure of the mass of the particle with which it ~ o l l i d e d . *In~ secondary ~~~ ion mass s p e ~ t r o m e t r y‘I7~ ~(or , “ion probe microanalysis”), the species sputtered from a surface by an incident ion beam are mass analyzed directly.

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