By D. S. Ballantine, Jr.,Robert M. White,S. J. Martin, et al.Elsevier|Elsevier Science||Academic PressAdult NonfictionScience, TechnologyLanguage(s): EnglishOn sale date: 13.05.2011Street date: 21.10.1996
Written through an interdisciplinary crew of specialists from either and academia, Acoustic Wave Sensors offers an in-depth examine the present nation of acoustic wave units and the scope in their use in chemical, biochemical, and actual measurements, in addition to in engineering purposes. as a result inherent interdisciplinary purposes of those units, this ebook might be valuable for the chemist and biochemist attracted to the use and improvement ofthese sensors for particular functions; engineer serious about the layout and development of those units; the chemical engineer and the biotechnologist attracted to utilizing those units for method tracking and regulate; and the sensor neighborhood at large.
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Extra resources for Acoustic Wave Sensors. Theory, Design, & Physico-Chemical Applications
4The quantity with physical significance is understood to be the real part of the expression for ui. The j in the exponent represents (-1)1/2. The exponential can be written in terms of sine and cosine functions using Euler’s identity,ejx= cos(x) +j sin(x), from which the displacement is seen to be ui(x,t) =ui0 cos(ωt−kx). A similar approach is used by electrical engineers to represent sinusoidally varying currents and voltages. 5The phase velocity is the speed at which one must travel to keep the phase of a sinusoidal wave at a constant value.
The similarity between this equation and the expression for the energy stored in a compressed spring,Us= 1/2kx2, is apparent. In piezoelectric media, the strain energy is multiplied by the factor (1 +K2) due to piezoelectric stiffening of the elastic constants. Thus, the strain energy includes electrical stored energy in this case. 41) is used. 7. 39 is ∂u3/∂x1= −jku3. 43) As mentioned previously, the energy stored in crystal deformation becomes kinetic energy one quarter of a cycle later. Thus, an energy conservation principle (known as the Rayleigh principle) applies to waves propagating in a lossless medium: peak strain energy density must equal peak kinetic energy density.
8Note that the source term is non-zero only in regions where it varies spatially. This is an important consideration in the mechanism by which acoustic waves are launched in the thickness-shear mode resonators that we consider later. Chapter 3 Acoustic Wave Sensors and Responses Devices based on piezoelectric crystals, which allow transduction between electrical and acoustic energies, have been constructed in a number of configurations for sensor applications and materials characterization. This chapter examines those devices most commonly utilized for sensing applications, including the thickness-shear mode (TSM) resonator, the surface acoustic wave (SAW) device, the acoustic plate mode (APM) device, and the flexural plate wave (FPW) device.