By John P. LeDonne
This can be the 1st complete exam of the Russian ruling elite and its political associations in the course of an immense interval of nation development, from the emergence of Russia at the level of worldwide politics round 1700 to the consolidation of its place after the victory over Napoleon. rather than targeting the good rulers of the period--Peter, Catherine, and Alexander--the paintings examines the the Aristocracy which by myself can make their strength potent. LeDonne not just offers an entire chronological account of the improvement of bureaucratic, army, monetary, and political associations in Russia in this interval, but in addition skillfully analyzes the ways that neighborhood businesses and the ruling classification exercised regulate and shared strength with absolutely the monarchs.
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Additional resources for Absolutism and Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825
Abuses, however, soon crept in, as noble assemblies showed little discrimination about the social origins of prospective nobles. In gubernias and uezds where tax farmers were almost the only individuals with a source of ready cash, money must have talked loudly to convince nobles that it was in their interest to accept fraudulent evidence. Moreover, assemblies were not eager to send their registers to Petersburg, if only to protect themselves against disturbing questions. By 1813, however, all but five of the twenty-six gubernias had sent them.
The manifesto of January 1807 retained this honorific title for scholars and artists and gave the top layer of the first-guild merchantry the title of "merchant of the first category" (pervostateinyi kupets). This in effect restored the Muscovite distinction between the gosti and the three categories of merchants. The Supplementary Statute of November 1824 retained the distinction, calling the elite of the merchantry negotsianty as well. At the bottom of the social scale it divided meshchane into trading meshchane and posadskie, to separate those engaged in trade from the others.
Catherine's reforms strengthened the apparatus of control over towns and townsmen by placing the police under a Senate appointee and vesting the review of judicial decisions over townsmen in appointed chambers and the governor. Although Alexander's government admitted some participation by the first two merchant guilds in the judicial chambers, municipal government passed under the authority of the minister of internal affairs, the corps commander of the nobility, and state peasants found their "protector" in the finance minister—both ministers among the most powerful members of the ruling elite.